Native Bark Tanning Techniques: page 2
Native Bark Tanning Accounts
The accounts of native 'bark tanning' are remarkably similar. Soaking times in the bark solution are very short, so the amount of tannin actually being fixed is limited. Application of oils and softening seems to be optional. In some ways, it sounds more like they are making 'bark treated' rawhide or oil tan. Here for example, on one extreme, is a description of the Eskimo tanning of seal skins:
"They scraped it off (the alder bark) in very fine pieces and rubbed it directly on the skin to be dyed. The dryer the skin the quicker it took the dye. Some skins required two or three applications. Then the sides were folded against each other and the skin was left in a cool place overnight. Shaken free of bark in the morning, it was rubbed and pulled with the hands in all directions. Worked, allowed to dry, worked etc., until it was dry and soft. Oil might be applied if the skin were too hard."
Chukchee: Another example in which oiling does not seem to even be a part of the process, from the natives of NE Russia:
vessel filled with urine and some alder-bark cut fine is warmed for an hour
over an ordinary lamp. When the liquor is sufficiently saturated, the inside
of the skin is well rubbed with it, and the skin is hung up in the sleeping
room to dry. After drying, it is again gone over with the scraper, all tough
places are dampened with urine, scraped, and dyed anew.
With the largest skins the scraping is repeated several times. Each time the skin is left to dry over night. The scraping is begun with the stone scraper, and continued with the iron one. The more scrapings the skin has undergone, the softer and finer it becomes in the end.
The dyeing with alder bark is considered quite indispensable for every part of the reindeer skin, even for the tough strips taken from the legs, which are used for boots and mittens. This process makes the skin softer, and corresponds somewhat to tanning. The dyed skins will keep off dampness much better than those with white inner side.
The chief drawback with all these skins is their complete unfitness to stand moisture. Even slightly damp skins, when drying, will become crumpled and as hard as wood. Faults of this kind can be partially corrected by fresh scraping and dyeing, but even then the skin is in much worse condition..."
the following example, the hides are soaked for 8-10 days. This is from the Borealis
Crafts website. (they cite: Bock, Alan.
1991. Out of Necessity. Bebb Publishing. St. Anthony. Newfoundland):
Saami: The description of Saami bark tans that Doug Crist and Lynx Shepard shared with me were very similar to the Newfoundland account. Soaking periods are considerably longer than the Eskimo's overnight, but nowhere near as long as the 'civilized' traditions. The Saami do most of their tanning with Reindeer which are generally very thin skinned, and didn't necessarily oil the skins for softening.
Although bark tanning furs and hair on hides is not a distinct part of the 'civilized' tanning traditions, it was done by these native cultures. Both the Chukchee and the Eskimo accounts excerpted above refer to the tanning of furs and hair-on skins (though they also talk about doing hair off skins in a similar way). They both emphasize applying the bark to the flesh side repeatedly rather than soaking the skin. This is also how Lotta Rahme describes the Saami methods of doing hair-on reindeer. Is this to prevent the tannins from discoloring the fur (I don't know if they would) or simply to keep the stringy bark pulp out of the fur?.